Expository papers

These were written up for various reasons: course handouts, notes to accompany a talk for a (mathematically) general audience, or for some other purpose that I have since forgotten. If you find typographical or other errors in these files, or have comments, please let me know. Files that are revised will be reposted without any indication that they have been changed (sorry).

Writing Proofs
Advice on mathematical writing Examples of proofs by induction Proofs of integrality of binomial coefficients Well-defined functions
Group Theory
Sign of permutations The Fifteen puzzle (and Rubik's cube) Order of elements Subgroups of cyclic groups
Subgroups of Z/(pa) × Z/(pb) Cyclicity of (Z/(p))× Homomorphisms No subgroup of index 2 in A4
Groups of order 4 and 6 Groups of order 12 Groups of order p3 Generalized Quaternions
Generating sets Cosets and Lagrange's Theorem Conjugation A 2-parameter nonabelian group
Dihedral groups I Dihedral groups II Isometries of the plane and complex numbers Isometries of the plane and linear algebra
Isometries of Rn SL2(R) SL2(Z) Proof of Cauchy's theorem
Applications of Cauchy's theorem Group actions Transitive group actions The Sylow theorems (proof)
Applications of Sylow theorems More on Sylow theorems When are all groups of order n cyclic? Simplicity of An
Simplicity of PSLn(F) Characters of finite abelian groups Characters of finite abelian groups (short version) Subgroup series I
Subgroup series II Splitting of short exact sequences for groups Schur-Zassenhaus theorem Relativistic addition and group theory
Escher's Print Gallery and quotient groups Maschke's theorem over general fields Representations of affine and Heisenberg group over finite fields The degree may not divide the size of the group
Why word problems are hard
Ring Theory
Division theorem in Z and R[T] Counting Roots of Polynomials Standard definitions Ideals
Irreducibility Tests in Q[T] Irreducibility of xn - x - 1 The Gauss norm and Gauss's lemma Remarks about Euclidean domains
Symmetric polynomials Applications of unique factorization Quaternion Algebras Primitive vectors and SLn
Zorn's lemma (in group theory, ring theory, and linear algebra)
Linear/Multilinear algebra
Dimension Minimal polynomial Simultaneous commutativity of operators Potentially diagonalizable operators
Semisimple operators Differential equations and linear algebra Linear recursions over all fields The norm of a matrix
Orthogonal group of x2 + y2 - z2 Pfister's theorem on sums of squares Hurwitz's theorem on sums of squares (by linear algebra) Hurwitz's theorem on sums of squares (by representation theory)
Sums of squares in Q and F(T) Introduction to modules Modules over a PID Simultaneously aligned bases
Stably free modules Noetherian modules Dual modules Infinite-dimensional dual spaces
Bilinear forms Universal Identities I Universal Identities II Splitting of short exact sequences for modules
Complexification Tensor products I Tensor products II Exterior Powers
Base Extension and Exterior Powers
Fields and Galois theory
Roots and irreducible polynomials Roots on the unit circle Simple radical extensions Finite fields
Trace and norm, I Trace and norm, II Separable extensions Perfect fields
Constructing algebraic closures, I Constructing algebraic closures, II Zorn's lemma (with fields) Splitting fields
Separable extensions and tensor products Splitting fields and tensor products Galois correspondence Examples of Galois correspondence
Applications of Galois theory Galois groups as permutation groups Galois Correspondence Theorems Galois groups of cubics and quartics (not char. 2)
Galois groups of cubics and quartics (all characteristics) Cyclotomic extensions Recognizing Galois groups Sn and An Linear independence of characters
Artin-Schreier theorem Galois descent
Elementary number theory
The Division Theorem in Z and F[T] Divisibility and greatest common divisor Divisibility without Bezout's identity Modular arithmetic
Modular arithmetic (short version) Unique Factorization in Z and F[T] Analogies between Z and F[T] Universal divisibility test
Pythagorean triples Fermat's little theorem Fermat's Test Euler's theorem
Orders in modular arithmetic Number theory and cryptography Chinese Remainder Theorem Carmichael Numbers and Korselt's Criterion
When is -1 a square modulo primes? Square patterns and infinitely many primes The "Topological" Proof of the Infinitude of Primes Solovay-Strassen Test
Miller-Rabin Test Irreducibility Tests in Fp[T] Pell's Equation, I Pell's Equation, II
Negation and inversion of continued fractions Gaussian integers Factoring in quadratic fields Sums of two squares and lattices
Fermat's method of descent An example of descent by Euler Congruent number problem Arithmetic progressions of three squares
Arithmetic progressions of four squares Quadratic reciprocity in odd characteristic Quadratic reciprocity in characteristic 2 Quadratic residue patterns modulo a prime
Algebraic number theory
Examples of Mordell's equation Factoring in quadratic fields Unique factorization of ideals Factoring ideals after Dedekind
Discriminants and ramified primes Totally ramified primes and Eisenstein polynomials Rings of integers without a power basis The ring of integers in a radical extension
A non-free relative integral extension Ideal classes and Kronecker bound Class group calculations by Minkowski bound Ideal classes and relative integers
Ideal classes and SL2
Ideal classes and matrix conjugation over Z Dirichlet's unit theorem Chevalley's unit theorem
Existence of Frobenius elements (d'après Frobenius) Primes of degree 1 and congruence conditions Euclidean proofs of Dirichlet's theorem Irreducibility of Truncated Exponentials
The Galois group of xn - x - 1 over Q The different ideal The conductor ideal L-functions for Gauss and Jacobi sums
Invariants of the splitting field of a cubic, I Invariants of the splitting field of a cubic, II Invariants of the splitting field of a cubic, III Invariants of the splitting field of a cubic, IV
Invariants of the splitting field of a cubic, V Ostrowski's theorem for Q Ostrowski's theorem for Q(i) Ostrowski's theorem for F(T)
Ostrowski's theorem for number fields The p-adic expansion of rational numbers Binomial coefficients and p-adic limits p-adic Harmonic Sums
Hensel's lemma A multivariable Hensel's lemma Equivalence of absolute values Equivalence of norms
The local-global principle Prime-power units and finite subgroups of GLn(Q) The character group of Q Field automorphisms of R and Qp
Infinite series in p-adic fields Mahler expansions An application of Strassmann's theorem Truncated Artin-Hasse series and roots of unity
Compact Subgroups of GLn(Qp) A separable extension with inseparable residue field Local compactness of Pontryagin dual group Selmer's Example
Kummer's lemma Fermat's last theorem for regular primes Carlitz extensions History of class field theory
Analysis
Orders of growth Estimating growth of divergent series Asymptotic growth Stirling's formula
The Gaussian integral Differentiation under the integral sign Infinite series The logarithm and arctangent
The remainder in Taylor series Abel's theorem Accelerating convergence of series Irrationality of π and e
Probability distributions and maximum entropy Metric spaces The contraction mapping theorem The contraction mapping theorem, II
The space c0(K) Lp spaces for 0 < p < 1
Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
Proof by Multivariable Calculus Proof by Linear Algebra Proof by Proper Maps
Topology
Spaces that are connected but not path connected Finite-dimensional topological vector spaces